When we started to realize that the lump of meat sitting in our skull is the real control centre for all our daily activities, many attempts have been made in the past to provide a comprehensive map for navigating this vital structure of ours. One of the earliest, and personally, the most intriguing one, is from the "science" of Phrenology developed by the German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796. It is a method of measuring the skulls in relation to the brain regions underneath the skull territory that are responsible for specific functions or characters of the human being. Although today, we might more or less put the sculpture of Phrenology head (yes, I have one in my living room as well) in the oddity section together perhaps with vodoo dolls and electrical therapy chairs, it did provide some preliminary directions on the separation of brain regions and functions. In the modern world, the general divisions of the brain lobes are also named after the skull bones they are under. However, deep under the cortex, there is a whole lot of world going on carrying relay signals between different sub-regions, which will require much more in-depth investigation.
While you can now buy a 3D digitized ensemble of Talairach and Schaltenbrand atlases (ask your nearby medical school's library) for your professional use or purely out of curiosity, there are many other versions of more modern digitized 3D brain maps. They are often color-coded and stored as formats that can be directly morphed to match the individual brain anatomy. With the better and stronger MRI scanners, these atlases will often accompany their MRI templates. The most famous ones in the brain imaging field are the MNI305 atlas (http://www.bic.mni.mcgill.ca/ServicesAtlases/MNI305) and ICBM152 atlas (http://www.bic.mni.mcgill.ca/ServicesAtlases/ICBM152NLin2009). The early versions of these atlases were manually aligned to fit the grid system of the Talairach atlas with AC-PC line aligned. The later versions applied more sophisticated image processing techniques to make multiple brain MRIs into one that has the averaged shape of a large population. I have also made my humble share of brain maps for the Parkinson's disease population. If you interested, you may check them out here.
One latest example of the brain map is the project called "Big Brain" developed by the team of Dr. Alan Evans at Montreal Neurological Institute and their collaborators. It was a hyped version of the previous works with more advanced technology. You may zoom-in for incredible details of the brain till the cellular level. The registration is free for use. You can give it a try here. It is mostly for educational purposes so far, application in clinical use is still limited.
From almost superstitious set-up to the cellular view of the human brain map, it was quite a big journey, right? As we add more and more technology and discoveries into the map, the information will only become richer and richer. What would you expect the next map to be like?